Volume 4 - 2021 - issue 2

1. Methods for observing, culturing, and studying living ascospores

Authors: Karakehian JM, Quijada L, Pfister DH, Tocci G, Miller AN

Recieved: 08 February 2021, Accepted: 04 May 2021, Published: 06 August 2021

Ascospore morphologies provide important characters with which to diagnose and describe taxa in Ascomycota. Ascospore features such as size, shape, color, septation, wall thickness, and guttulation, among others, are provided in identification manuals and descriptions of new species. Yet, by tradition, ascospores are usually described from dead fungarium material, and unfortunately, occasionally from immature or overmature ones. However, living, mature ascospores display a wealth of taxonomically informative morphological features that are lost or obscured when they die. Examples of the severe morphological changes that ascospores undergo when they die are provided here. Data from living ascospores may not be observed and recorded by mycologists because field and laboratory practices do not prioritize the study of freshly collected specimens. In this review, we discuss how to assess ascospore maturity and describe methods to produce an ascospore deposit for the purpose of obtaining living, mature ascospores. Ascospores are ejected from living, mature asci onto a cover glass or growth medium. The ascospores collected on these surfaces can be used in microscopy and culture studies. Notes on a method for isolating conidia on growth medium are also provided. This guide is aimed at those who have a basic understanding of ascomycetes, including the various types of ascomata and mechanisms of ascospore liberation. Methods given in this paper are primarily applied to ascomycete fungi that have active ascospore discharge. Some methods may be adapted for use with other groups that have passive discharge. Our purpose is to promote standardized, accurate, and thorough morphological characterization of living ascospores, as well as to encourage the routine employment of culture-based methods.

Keywords: active spore discharge – fungal taxonomy – living state – spore maturity – spore print – vital taxonomy.


2. Larger basidiomycetes growing on poroid lignicolous fungi show rot type-related colonization patterns

Authors: Halbwachs H, Ryvarden L, Bässler C

Recieved: 19 January 2021, Accepted: 12 March 2021, Published: 30 August 2021

Poroid fungi that grow on the wood are frequently associated with other basidiomycetes that are often used as a substrate, also during fungal succession. This lifestyle has differing evolutionary origins, going back at least 100 million years. The use of fungal tissue as a substrate indicates that some fungicolous taxa could benefit from the higher nutrient contents compared to wood. These life modes relate to the dead and live fruiting bodies of the hosts. It may take forms such as commensalism, replacement, saprotrophy, displacement, and parasitism. These modes, often driven by competitive processes, imply different strategies that, in most cases, may be linked to the degrading capacities (rot types) of colonizers and hosts, i.e., to their enzymatic repertoire. This repertoire often includes glucanases, which are potentially able to cleave structural glucans of fungi. For investigating these assumptions, a compilation of published data of 95 taxa recorded in temperate and boreal biomes of the northern hemisphere was analyzed. A conspicuous, previously unpublished observation was that the members of most associations showed a higher ratio of white rotters than those among wood fungi in general. This phenomenon points to their highly developed enzymatic competence, which may also explain saprotrophy on dead fruit bodies. Future research should, above all, investigate molecular mechanisms involved in mycotrophic basidiomycetes.

Keywords: enzymatic competence – fungicolous – mycotrophy – parasitism – succession


3. Endophytic association between Alternaria oxytropis and Oxytropis kansuensis affected by nutritional conditions and temperature

Authors: Xie Y, Li Y-L, Kakishima M

Recieved: 17 June 2021, Accepted: 08 August 2021, Published: 04 October 2021

Alternaria oxytropis has been reported as an endophyte of species in the genera Astragalus and Oxytropis (Fabaceae) in the USA and China. Infected plants contain the alkaloid swainsonine produced by the fungus, and this causes poisoning of grazing animals. Therefore, ecological investigations are important to clarify the extent of this endophytic association. Seeds of O. kansuensis were collected from a locality known for indigenous A. oxytropis in China and were cultured on artificial media under controlled conditions for about two months. Less than 50% of seeds germinated with colonies of A. oxytropis, however, germination and seedling growth were influenced by the type of culture media used as well as temperature. Seedling growth with colonies of the fungus was significantly better on low nutrient media at low temperature (20 °C) than that on a high nutrient media at high temperature (25 °C). Seedlings with colonies of the fungus on a high nutrient media were eventually killed by the fungus. It is suggested that the endophytic association between the fungus and plants is affected by nutritional conditions and temperature.

Keywords: Alkaloid – Endophyte – Host-parasite interaction – Poisonous plant – Seed germination – Swainsonine


4. Marthomamyces gen. nov. (Asterinales, Lembosiaceae) from Southern Western Ghats, India

Authors: Lini K M, Jacob T, Neeta N N

Recieved: 18 May 2021, Accepted: 09 September 2021, Published: 11 October 2021

During a survey and study of black mildew in the Western Ghat’s forests of Malabar Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala State, the plant Vateria indica (Dipterocarpaceae) was seen to be infected with black mildew causing ectoparasitic foliicolous fungus. A microscopic study of this fungus revealed that it belongs to the Lembosiaceae family. Based on the non-appressoriate mycelia with peculiar nutritional hyphae (haustoria) surrounding the stomata and elongated thyriothecia with longitudinal dehiscence, the present collection has been placed under a new genus Marthomamyces. Based on the morphological characters, it was revealed that the fungus infecting leaves of Vateria indica (Dipterocarpaceae) is Marthomamyces vateriae nom. nov. et stat. nov. Lini K. Mathew, Jacob Thomas and Neeta N. Nair. Echidnodella vateriae Hosag. and Kamar is the synonym of this species.

Keywords: Ascomycetes – Asterinales – Black Mildew fungi – Dipterocarpaceae – Vateria indica


5. Antibacterial profiling of endophytic fungi sourced from Justicia betonica, a medicinal plant from the secluded Western Ghats region

Authors: Parashiva J, Nuthan BR, Rakshith D, Satish S

Recieved: 13 July 2021, Accepted: 15 October 2021, Published: 27 October 2021

The present study focused on exploring the endophytic fungal diversity associated with an ethnomedicinally valued plant, Justicia betonica located in the Western Ghats region of Karnataka and evaluation of their antibacterial potential. A total of 210 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained from healthy leaf and stem tissues. The isolates were grouped into 17 distinct genera, including morphospecies. The Colletotrichum is one of the most predominant genera representing 18.1% of the total isolates, followed by Cladosporium (14.8%), Pestalotiopsis (7.14%), and Alternaria (6.7%). The Shannon-wiener diversity (H) showed that fungal diversity in both plant tissues does not have significant differences. The antibacterial potential of the isolates was evaluated using a primary agar plug diffusion technique in which 28 isolates showed prominent antibacterial activity. Nine isolates that showed the highest antibacterial activity were subjected to secondary antibacterial screening using ethyl acetate extracts. The extracts showed varying inhibitory activity against both the pathogens Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition zone ranging from 14 to 32 mm. A Xylaria sp. designated as PJJBLF53 displayed the maximum inhibition zone against both the pathogens tested when compared to the standard antibiotic, gentamicin. The study indicates that J. betonica harbors diverse endophytic fungi that possess potent antibacterial potential,

Keywords: Agar plug diffusion assay – Antibacterial activity – Diversity indices – Fungal endophytes – Xylaria sp.


6. State of knowledge on the diversity, phylogeny and distribution of Inocybaceae in Africa

Authors: Aïgnon HL, Acar İ, Naseer A, Yorou SN

Recieved: 30 July 2021, Accepted: 05 November 2021, Published: 02 December 2021

Several recent taxonomic studies have been conducted on fungi in Africa but little is known about their taxonomy, ecology, occurrence, distribution and phylogenic placement of certain families such as Inocybaceae. About 80 species of Inocybaceae are known from the African continent compared to against 1,100 species in the world. This review addresses the state of knowledge in relation to the taxonomy, ecology and collection sites of Inocybaceae taxa from Africa, as well as the aspects to be explored to better document Inocybaceae in Africa in general and particularly in West Africa.

Keywords: ecology – evolution – host tree – molecular phylogeny – origin


7. Checklist of fungi and fungi-like organisms on the common reed Phragmites australis

Authors: Voronin LV, Kopytina NI, Bocharova EA

Recieved: 14 May 2021, Accepted: 05 November 2021, Published: 02 December 2021

This report provides an updated checklist of fungi on the common reed Phragmites australis (Cavanilles) Trinius ex Steudel. For each fungus or fungi-like organism species, we indicate the family, the part of the plant on which the fungus was found, the geographical location, and the authors who found it. The list includes fungal species on living and dead plants in the air, soil and water environment. The list contains two kingdoms, Fungi and Chromista (fungi-like organisms). The fungus kingdom is represented by 562 species belonging to 328 genera, 143 families, 58 orders, and 21 classes in three taxonomic phyla: Mucoromycota (6 species), Ascomycota (508), Basidiomycota (48). The Chromista includes 37 species belonging to eight genera, four families, three orders, and one class under one taxonomic phylum, Oomycota. From the fungus kingdom, 230 species were discovered on leaves, 124 on leaf sheaths, 336 on stems, 75 on roots, 435 in the freshwater environment, 195 in seawater, 262 on submerged plant parts, 79 in dry soil, 324 in aerial plant parts, 321 on dead plants, and 296 on live plants. From the Chromista kingdom, six species were discovered on leaves, three on leaf sheaths, three on stems, zero on roots, 26 in freshwater, zero in seawater, five on submerged plant parts, 32 in dry soil, three in aerial parts, two on dead plants, and 37 on live plants. The maximum number of the fungal species on the reed was 33 species from the family Halosphaeriaceae (19 genera, Ascomycota) and 33 species from the family Pythiaceae (three genera, Chromista).

Keywords: Mucoromycota – Ascomycota – Basidiomycota – Oomycota – soil fungi – water fungi


8. https://www.coelomycetes.org: Databank that contributes for the classification, identification and nomenclature of Coelomycetes

Authors: Huanraluek N, Padaruth OD, Jayawardena RS, Li WJ, Hongsanan S, Jeewon R, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Senanayake IC, Phukhamsakda C, Wijayawardene NN, Shivas RG, Goonasekara ID, Norphanphoun C, Pem D, Calabon MS, Bhunjun CS, Hyde KD

Recieved: 24 September 2021, Accepted: 30 November 2021, Published: 30 December 2021

Over the years, there have been continuous updates in the taxonomy of coelomycetes. In particular, traditional classification has been revised and updated based on extensive collections supplemented with morphological examinations and phylogenetic analyses. Most of the data available are scattered in the literature. In an attempt to ease the work of mycologists and bring all these data together, a website has been created, available at https://www.coelomycetes.org. Information provided on the webpage is in line with the current ranking and classification of taxa and will include photoplates, drawings, phylogenetic trees, notes and descriptions.

Keywords: asexual fungi – conidiogenesis – curators – database – website


9. Rhizospheric Soil Microfungal Diversity under Hippophae salicifolia D.Don ecosystems of Garhwal Himalayas

Authors: Guleri S, Saklani K, Singh M, Kumar A, Singh K, Tyagi M, Jabi S, Sahni S, Bajpai AB, Rayal R

Recieved: 22 June 2020, Accepted: 15 November 2021, Published: 30 December 2021

The present communication attempts to provide information on the distribution and diversity of rhizospheric soil mycoflora under Hippophae salicifolia D.Don of Garhwal Himalayas. To achieve the target, soil samples were collected from two different localities, viz., Mana of Chamoli and Yamnotri of Uttarkashi districts of Garhwal Himalaya. Samples were also analysed for physicochemical properties, including texture, soil reaction (pH), and organic carbon. The serial dilution method was used to isolate the soil mycoflora. During the investigation, pH ranged from 5.95±1 to 6.67±1, and the moisture content was between 3.86±1 % and 1.63±1 %. Thirty-four species of microfungi belonging to 21 genera were isolated from all the sampling sites. Cladosporium was the most dominant genus, followed by Aspergillus and Fusarium. Cladosporium cladosporiodes was the most common fungi isolated from Hippophae growing sites with maximum contribution (7.43%) whereas, Nigrospora sphaerica was the least important species with minimum contribution ( 0.80%). The highest number of species (23) was isolated from the Mana site of Chamoli District of Garhwal Himalaya. Of the 34 species recorded, six were common, ten frequent, 12 moderate, and six rare occurrences. Similarity ranged from 16.21% to 96.26%. The Shannon-Wiener's diversity index was highest in Mana 2 (2.972), followed by Yamnotri 1 (2.217). Total richness and abundance were the highest in Mana 2 whereas lowest in Yamnotri 1. Evenness was highest in Mana 1 (0.966), followed by Mana 3 (0.954), while lowest observed in Yamnotri 3 (0.905). It was noteworthy in the present contribution that all the soil microfungi reported under H. salicifolia associated rhizospheric soils are new reports to such ecosystems of Garhwal Himalaya. Thus, it is hoped that further investigation of soils under different vegetation regimes of these altitudinal zones mainly dominated by Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Picea smithiana, Betula utilis, Alnus nepalensis, Abies pindrow will definitely add to the knowledge of microfungal flora adapted to different ecosystems.

Keywords: Diversity – Himalaya – Micro Fungi – Medicinal Plants – Soil


10. Endophytic fungal diversity associated with roots of Angelica glauca: An endangered medicinal plant of Northwest Himalaya

Authors: Gaur A, Parash V, Kumar V, Thakur A

Recieved: 01 September 2021, Accepted: 07 December 2021, Published: 31 December 2021

Angelica glauca Edgew. is an endangered medicinal plant species that is known for its roots containing valuable essential oil. It is overexploited for its roots and has become endangered and nearing its threshold. This study is aimed at exploring the endophytic fungal diversity associated with its roots to further study the conservation aspects with the help of the interaction of host plant species and endophytes. About 24 different root fungal endophyte species were isolated among which Geotrichum candidum (32.03 ± 7.95 %) was found to be the most dominant followed by Fusarium oxysporum (11.49 ± 21.69 %). The average root colonization of all the endophytes in all four collection fields was 61.195 ± 9.67 % wherein the maximum colonization was observed in wild root samples (74%) and the least root colonization by fungal endophytes was observed in two years old cultivated plants root system (52.36%). Positive Pearson’s correlation (r = 0.801) was observed between the samples/fields and root colonization by fungal endophytes, indicating the colonization increases in roots as the age of plant species advances. Both the Simpson’s Diversity Index (D) and Shannon Wiener diversity index (H) indicate relatively lower diversity in Field 3 (D = 0.43 & H = 1.07) and Field 4 (D = 0.57 & H = 0.97) i.e. in two years old plantations and wild plants. Menhinick Index (Dmn) and Margalef Richness Index (Mf) are based on species richness, and both of them indicate Field 3 (Dmn = 0.95 & Mf = 2.04) to be the richest. Both Buzas and Gibson’s Index (E) and Equitability Index (EH) are a measure of evenness and yield similar results viz. Field 1 (one year old plantations) (E = 0.65 & EH = 0.76) and Field 4 (E = 0.66 & EH = 0.70) being the most even in terms of species distribution. Berger-Parker Dominance Index (B) shows field 3 (B = 0.75) having the highest values. 

Keywords: Diversity index – Endophytic strains – Essential oil – Root fungal endophytes.


About Asian Journal of Mycology

Asian Journal of Mycology publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

All manuscripts will undergo peer review before acceptance. Asian Journal of Mycology will publish each manuscript as quickly as possible following acceptance by the editors.

Asian Journal of Mycology

Asian Journal of Mycology

AJOM indexed in Web of Science
♦ Biological Abstracts
♦ BIOSIS Previews


  • Email:
  • Address:
    Center of Excellence in Fungal Research
    Mae Fah Luang University,
    333 Moo 1 Thasud
    Muang Chiangrai 57100