Volume 5 - 2022 - issue 1

1. Ganoderma industry in Nepal: current status and future prospects

Authors: Raut JK, Bade A, Khyaju S, Baral K

Recieved: 08 June 2021, Accepted: 16 December 2021, Published: 06 January 2022

Ganoderma has long been regarded as one of the most important medicinal mushrooms, particularly in China, Japan, and the Korean Peninsula for millennia to enhance longevity and health. Ganoderma and its allied products are a multi-billion-dollar worth industry worldwide. Ganoderma, which is considered an important non-timber forest product (NTFP) in Nepal, has entered the industrial market only a decade ago. Besides the global market, the domestic market has grown dramatically in recent years. Ganoderma is collected in large quantities (about 4-10 tons per year) from Nepalese forests to meet its rising demand and is mostly sold to China in crude form. Since the authority has poor knowledge of the Ganoderma market it is transported with minimal royalty of US$ 0.043/kg under the heading entitled “sadharan chyau”. Almost all of Nepal's Ganoderma comes from natural stands, with the bulk coming from the Karnali (46%) and Far West (50%) provinces. With the great potential for the Ganoderma business, most of the other areas of the country have yet to be fully explored. By establishing processing units and offering locally priced micro-enterprise technologies, there are several opportunities for value addition. However, it looks that sustaining a steady supply of this highly sought mushroom will be tough. Concerns have been expressed about overexploitation of wild Ganoderma obtained in an unsustainable way or at an early stage. For the long-term management of Ganoderma and its habitat protection, a solid local resource monitoring system and scientific intervention for artificial cultivation are required. This study attempts to summarize the trade dynamics and development of the Ganoderma industry in Nepal with reference to the global Ganoderma industry.

Keywords: Fungi – Lingzhi – MAPs – Mushroom – NTFPs – Nutraceutical – Trade


2. New soil-inhabiting Chaetosphaeriaceous records from Thailand

Authors: Yasanthika E, Tennakoon DS, Farias ARG, Bhat DJ, Wanasinghe DN5

Recieved: 21 October 2022, Accepted: 20 January 2022, Published: 01 February 2022

Soil fungi represent the most abundant and diverse taxonomic group on Earth. Tropical forest soil-based habitats contain both edaphic and climatic factors that boost fungal activities in soil. Despite having vital functions in terrestrial ecosystems, information on diversity, taxonomy, and ecological preferences of soil fungi on a global scale is lacking. This study focuses on fungal species inhabiting tropical forest soils in Krabi, Thailand. Fungal isolation was performed using the soil dilution plate method, and species delimitation was conducted via morphological characterization and phylogenetic analyses. Chloridium gonytrichii and Kionochaeta microspora are introduced herein as the soil-inhabiting records from Thailand. For each species, comprehensive descriptions and micrographs are provided.

Keywords: Ascomycota – Chaetosphaeriaceae – Chloridium – Kionochaeta – taxonomy


3. Cultivation of black poplar mushroom, Cyclocybe aegerita, on woody and non-woody lignocellulosic substrates with a high biological efficiency

Authors: Rezaeian SH, Pourianfar HR, Shahtahmasebi SH

Recieved: 23 January 2021, Accepted: 13 February 2022, Published: 14 March 2022

The Black Poplar mushroom, Cyclocybe aegerita, is considered a high-quality mushroom due to its high nutritional value, delicious taste, and unique aroma. This fungus is commonly grown in East Asia and Europe. It has shown low biological efficiency (BE) on a majority of lignocellulosic substrates studied to date. This study aims to investigate the possibility of enhancing the BE of C. aegerita and to evaluate the effect of the carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the substrate. The performance of C. aegerita was determined using five woody and non-woody lignocellulosic substrates with a precisely determined C:N ratio. The result showed that the highest significant BE was 194%, obtained from a non-woody substrate composed of 78% wheat straw supplemented with 20% wheat bran (p ≤ 0.05), followed by a woody substrate composed of 73% of wood chips, 10% of wheat bran, 10% of cottonseed, and 5% of wheat seed, which generated 123% BE. The remaining substrates were unable to produce more than 100% BE (p ≤ 0.05). The mycelial growth of C. aegerita in the substrate as well as in the substrate-derived media was also significantly improved using a non-woody substrate consisting of 78% wheat straw supplemented with 20% wheat bran compared with other substrates (p ≤ 0.05). Further analyses also revealed that an increased level of the C:N ratio resulted in a decline in the total fresh yield that was obtained from the substrates, so that the optimal C:N ratio was found to be within the range of 48–56%. These findings may have implications for improving the BE of C. aegerita and removing one of its most important barriers in commercial production.

Keywords: Black Poplar mushroom – C:N ratio – mycelial growth – wheat straw – yield performance


4. Biocontrol of Fusarium spp. by soil surface fungi from Mt. Isarog, Camarines Sur

Authors: Capule PRD, Agraviador MCJT, Fumera PJC, Pasahol TMV, Pangilinan MVB, Paguirigan JAG

Recieved: 30 June 2021, Accepted: 03 February 2022, Published: 18 March 2022

The pathogenic strains of Fusarium spp. wilt entire hectares of agriculturally important crops, and biological control is the most advantageous method to halt this problem. In this study, fourteen soil surface fungi were isolated using serial dilution and initial inoculation in synthetic nutrient-poor agar (SNA), Czapek Dox agar (CDA), and malt extract agar (MEA). The soilborne fungal isolates were morphologically identified into four genera: Aspergillus, Curvularia, Dictyuchus, Trichoderma, while two were identified as mycelia sterilia. We performed dual culture and best inoculation method to test the biocontrol activity of the 14 soil surface fungi against Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium moniliforme, and Fusarium sp. Both methods revealed that soil surface fungi could inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. Aspergillus sp. 3 inhibited the growth of three pathogenic fungi when planted first in best inoculation, while Trichoderma sp. inhibited the growth of Fusarium sp. in both methods, and F. verticillioides when planted first in the best inoculation method.


Keywords: Antagonistic Effect – Fusarium – Inhibition – Negative Control – Treatment – Wilt


5. Diversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungal Association with Quercus oblongata D. Don

Authors: Thakur M, Singh M, Srivastava DK, Singh PK 2022

Recieved: 12 November 2021, Accepted: 13 March 2022, Published: 19 May 2022

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a pervasive, obligate, mutualistic association with plant roots to help and play an important role in their life. In the current study, the species diversity of AMF in the rhizosphere of Quercus oblongata D. Don was studied. Rhizospheric soil samples and roots were collected from three different locations (Ropadi Gad, Sakaryar, and Saron). The occurrence of AMF, species composition and the diversity of AM fungi were observed with Q. oblongata plants. At all the 3 locations, selected plants were found to be colonized with AMF, however, the extent of root colonization significantly varied at different locations. Morphologically different 12 AMF species were isolated and identified from the rhizosphere of Q. oblongata. Of those 12 AMF species, six were found from the Ropadi Gad location, seven from the Sakaryar, and the remaining five from the Saron location. The highest root colonization was observed in Q. oblongata at Sakaryar (53.32%), followed by Ropadi Gad (46.67%), while the least was observed at Saron (40.40%). The number of spores ranged from 185±2.54 to 312±3.60, with an average of 250.33±3.32 per 100 g of air-dried soil. The number of spores exhibited a significant positive correlation with root colonization. The number of arbuscules and vesicles also followed the same trend viz. the maximum number of arbuscules and vesicles at Sakaryar, followed by Ropadi Gad, and with a minimum at Saron.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi – Quercus oblongata – root colonization – structural diversity


6. Assessment of water borne hyphomycete conidia in stemflow in two tree species of southwestern India a preliminary account

Authors: Sharathchandra K, Sridhar KR

Recieved: 28 January 2022, Accepted: 14 May 2022, Published: 31 May 2022

Tree bark is one of the potential niches in the tree canopy that supports a variety of fungi, including water borne hyphomycetes. Surveys have been carried out to assess the conidia of water

borne hyphomycetes in stemflow and throughfall of several tree canopies in different geographic zones. This study assessed the assemblage and diversity of conidia of water borne hyphomycetes in stemflow by filtration and latex trap (Ficus latex smear on the microscopic slides) methods for Acacia and Ficus tree species for up to four days during the monsoon season. Air temperature, humidity and physicochemical features of stemflow between the tree species did not differ drastically. Conidia of 52 species were recorded in stemflow of two tree species using both methods with 21 common species, while 8 and 23 species were confined to filtration and latex trap, respectively. The species richness and diversity observed were higher in Ficus than Acacia in the filtration method, while it was the opposite for the latex trap method. Although filtration showed lower species richness than the latex trap method, the conidial count was higher in the filtration method than in the latex trap method. Stemflow filtration as well as the latex trap method showed a higher number of staurosporous conidia than other conidial types. The conidia of the top five species found in the filtration and latex trap methods were Anguillospora longissima, Cylindrocarpon aquaticum, Flagellospora curvula, Triscelophorus acuminatus and T. konajensis. This study demonstrated about 50% uniqueness in species of water borne hyphomycetes between the tree species as well as among the methods.

Keywords: Abiotic factors – Acacia – aquatic fungi – conidia – diversity – Ficus – latex trap – techniques


7. Soil nutrients dynamics and status of Mycoflora Population in a tropical Forest Soil of Uttarakhand Himalaya

Authors: Akash, Navneet, Bhandari BS, Meena DS.

Recieved: 22 September 2021, Accepted: 03 February 2022, Published: 31 May 2022

Tropical forests have a great diversity of microorganisms. Fungi are the most important group of microbes. They play an essential role in tropical forest ecosystem as saprotrophs, mutualists and pathogens. In the present study, we attempted to study the soil nutrient dynamics and status of the mycoflora population, along with the effect of soil nutrient dynamics on the fungal population. Fourteen species of fungi within five genera belonging to three families were isolated and identified from the six forest sites in the Chilla forest division under Rajaji tiger reserve. They belong to the class Zygomycetes and form class Deuteromycetes. The soil of the study area was acidic without much variation among all the six study sites. Higher nutrient concentrations were recorded in the top layer of the soil, which supports the maximum number of fungi population in the study area. Further, fungal flora was also correlated with varying ecological factors, viz. pH, organic carbon and nitrogen and phosphorus.

Keywords: Chilla – Fungi – Microorganism – Rajaji tiger reserve – Soil fungi


8. Checklist of genus Septoria (Mycosphaerellaceae) in Uzbekistan

Authors: Islomiddinov ZSh, Teshaboyeva ShA, Mustafaev IM

Recieved: 06 July 2021, Accepted: 25 March 2022, Published: 16 June 2022

Uzbekistan is blessed with a rich ecosystem diversity, however, only a small fraction of the diverse flora and fauna in the country is known. Recently, there has been a growing demand for a systematic database based on the latest data that completely covers the mycobiota of Uzbekistan. This study provides an update on the available data on Septoria species throughout Uzbekistan. This study is based on the literature published between 1926 and 2021 and the latest research in the country on herbarium specimens held in the Tashkent Mycological Herbarium. The current checklist contains information on 117 species of Septoria in the region from 163 host species belonging to 40 families and 104 host genera, among which they are distributed.

Keywords: Ascomycetous – biodiversity – fungi – host plant – mycobiota – Mycosphaerellales


9. Checklist of ascomycetes recorded on eucalypts in Brazil (1976 ̶ 2022)

Authors: Barreto GG, Gusmão LFP, Dianese JC.

Recieved: 01 March 2022, Accepted: 27 May 2022, Published: 27 June 2022

The fungi associated with eucalypts (Eucalyptus and Corymbia species) have been widely studied. Starting in the 70’s, many ascomycetes were described mainly in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. As planted forests spread throughout the country, an increasing number of new fungal species were detected resulting in the checklist here shown. Ascomycete species on eucalypts were listed and distributed in class, order, and family with indications of host species, substrate, locality, and geographical distribution among Brazilian states. This checklist includes 236 ascomycetes, belonging to 32 orders, and 61 families associated with 30 species, 5 interspecific hybrids of Eucalyptus and 4 species of Corymbia. Species were distributed among four classes, 32 orders, and 62 families, most of them in Dothideomycetes (28 species in Mycosphaerellales), Sordariomycetes (55 species in Hypocreales, 22 in Diaporthales, 19 in Xylariales), and Eurotiomycetes (10 species in Eurotiales). Most species were found in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, with a total of 101 and 28 species, respectively. 

Keywords: Ascomycota – Corymbia – Eucalyptus – leaf litter – mycodiversity – Neotropica


10. Documentation & Statistical Analysis of Diversity of Microfungi of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Maharashtra, India

Authors: Dubey R, Pandey

Recieved: 18 January 2022, Accepted: 14 June 2022, Published: 30 June 2022

The present paper aims at studying the diversity of phyllospheric, rhizospheric soil and aquatic microfungal flora of Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) and its 10% peripheral area with statistical analysis of the diversity data to draw inferences about microfungal diversity. For analysis, the study area was divided into five zones, defined over a span of three ranges and a 10% peripheral area. Standard methods and keys were followed for the isolation and identification of fungi from different substrates, with routine microscopic work supplemented by scanning electron microscopy and molecular methods for some novel fungi. A total of 334 isolates obtained included 186 litter fungi (55.69%), 77 soil fungi (23.05%), 43 foliicolous fungi (12.87%), and 28 water fungi (8.38%). A total of 231 species in 121 genera were documented, of which 120 genera belong to Ascomycota and one to Basidiomycota. The study resulted in the publication of three new species, 13 new records for India, and two new records for Maharashtra. Aspergillus was dominant with 23 species, followed by Diatrype and Meliola (eight species each). In statistical analysis, we first examine differences in observed species richness across the zones using dummy variable regression and Kruskal-Wallis Test, with species count as the dependent variable. Both yielded similar statistically significant (p-value<0.01) differences in mean and median species counts, respectively. Dissimilarity in species composition, analysed by pairwise Jaccard Dissimilarity Index, was above 82% in all cases, with only one species common in all the zones. In diversity indices, Gini-Simpson’s was above 0.9 for all the zones, and Shannon’s was maximum (=4.4118) for Yeoor [South] and minimum (=2.7185) for Peripheral areas. Pielou’s evenness index was maximum (=0.9954) for Krishnagiri range and minimum (=0.9539) for Yeoor [South]. True diversity (based on Shannon’s Index) was highest (=82) for Yeoor [South] and lowest (=15) for Peripheral. Thus, based on systematics and statistical analysis, it can be concluded that SGNP exhibits a very rich diversity of microfungi.

Keywords: Diversity Indices – Jaccard Dissimilarity Index – Kruskal-Wallis Test – Microfungal flora – Regression – Sanjay Gandhi National Park – Species Richness – True Diversity.


About Asian Journal of Mycology

Asian Journal of Mycology publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

All manuscripts will undergo peer review before acceptance. Asian Journal of Mycology will publish each manuscript as quickly as possible following acceptance by the editors.

Asian Journal of Mycology

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