Volume 5 - 2022 - issue 2
Authors: Manjula, Aishwarya, Payal, Avasthi S, Verma RK, Gautam AK
Recieved: 14 April 2022, Accepted: 21 July 2022, Published: 06 September 2022
Mycorrhizal fungi are associated in mutualistic symbiosis relationships with fine roots of the plants. These fungi help in enhancing plant health to combat both biotic and abiotic stresses. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth performance of pea (Pisum sativum). Soils were collected from the experimental fields of Abhilashi University to be used in the pot experiment. The pots were filled with a mixture of sterilized soil and sterilized Farm Yard Manure (FYM). Labelled experimental pots were sown with two pea seeds in each. Experimental pots were inoculated using four AM fungi, namely Glomus intraradices, G. aggregatum, G. clarum and Sclerocystis microcarpa. The effects of mycorrhizal fungi were examined in terms of plant height, leaf length, total number of leaves and root length. From the results, it was observed that fungi pose a significant effect on plant height, root length and total number of roots of peas. These findings revealed that AMF can significantly contribute to improve some growth aspects of pea.
Keywords: AM fungi – inoculation – growth parameters – mutualistic symbiosis – Pisum sativum
2. A new record of Fusarium metavorans (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales) frequent opportunist fungus from Kashmir Himalaya, India
Authors: Malik MA, Jan N, Wani AH, Sheikh AR, Jan M, Bhat MY.
Recieved: 03 June 2022, Accepted: 08 November 2022, Published: 14 November 2022
In the course of the mycological survey in several Kashmir Himalayan regions, the collection and isolation of various soil fungi from various sites were performed. The rhizosphere of the important medicinal plant Digitalis purpurea L. from the Kashmir Himalaya was used for the first time to isolate Fusarium metavorans. To isolate the fungi that were present in the soil samples, the serial dilution method was used. Identification of the fungi was carried out based on cultural, microscopic, and molecular characteristics using the ITS gene. Colonies were white and cottony on the upper side and light yellow to yellowish orange on the reverse side. Aerial mycelium, macroconidia as well as microconidia were present. Established upon the closest identification of BLAST analysis, the nucleotide sequences of 20 isolates obtained from GenBank were compared to the GenBank databases and matched at the diverse global similarity. A literature survey was carried out, and we concluded that Fusarium metavorans isolated in our study was a new record from the Kashmir Himalaya, India.
Keywords: BLAST – Digitalis purpurea – GenBank – Rhizosphere
3. Endolichenic fungi from common Usnea lichens found in a montane forest in Malaysia: a study on diversity and bioactivity profiling
Authors: Santiago KAA, dela Cruz TEE, Ting ASY
Recieved: 18 May 2022, Accepted: 11 November 2021, Published: 28 November 2022
This study evaluated the diversity of endolichenic fungi (ELF) isolated from three common lichen species (Usnea baileyi, U. bismolliuscula and U. pectinata) found in Bukit Larut, Peninsular Malaysia. Diversity indices and phylogenetic analysis were performed to identify the various species found in lichens, and their bioactivity profiles were established based on antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Sixty-two (62) ELF isolates were identified, mostly belonging to the family Xylariaceae (88.7%, 55 isolates), followed by Hypoxylaceae (6.5%, four isolates), Nectriaceae (3.2%, two isolates) and Sporocadaceae (1.6%, one isolate). The common genera were Nemania (45.2%, 28 isolates) and Xylaria (27.4%, 17 isolates). In this study, ELF isolates have shown both host-generalist and host-specific behaviours towards their lichen hosts. The ELF also have relatively strong antimicrobial (minimum inhibitory concentration:0.0625-10.00mg/ml) and antioxidant (IC50:5.72-17.8mg/ml) properties. This study highlights that a diverse ELF collection rich in bioactive compounds can be found in lichens in the montane forest in Malaysia.
Keywords: Bukit Larut – fruticose lichen – host specificity – tropical forest – Xylariaceae
Authors: Htet ZH, Chethana KWT, Mapook A
Recieved: 18 May 2022, Accepted: 08 November 2022, Published: 01 December 2022
Weeds are one of the major threats to the agricultural sector as well as to the natural environment, and it is important to control them. They cause serious threats to commercial crop production, global vegetation, and human health. Invasion by exotic weed species imposes a significant impact on native plant communities and their biodiversity, leading to major changes in global vegetation patterns. Biological control has become popular during the past few decades. In agricultural systems, weeds are controlled using chemicals. However, it has some limitations in natural systems. Furthermore, the use of biological control for weeds increased due to increased public awareness of the negative impacts of chemical herbicides and the increase of herbicide-resistant weeds. Biological control of weeds focuses on the use of co-evolved natural enemies such as fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Nowadays, biological control of weeds with fungi was popular because it is environmentally safe, sustainable and has beneficial applications. This review focuses on fungi as potential biocontrol agents for weeds and the success achieved in case studies.
Keywords: invasive weeds – mycoherbicides – natural enemies – weed management
5. Meliola crotalariae sp. nov. (Ascomycetes, Meliolales) from Malabar Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala State, India
Authors: Lini K Mathew
Recieved: 09 August 2022, Accepted: 14 November 2022, Published: 06 December 2022
A novel species, Meliola crotalariae is introduced herewith morphological evidence. It was collected from infected leaves of Crotalaria verrucosa (Fabaceae) in the Malabar Wildlife Sanctuary of Kozhikode district in Kerala State (India). The novel taxon is characterized by having alternate to unilateral and only 2% opposite appressoria with shorter mycelial setae (420 µm). This study provides a detailed description and illustrations with morphological comparisons of related Meliola species.
Keywords: Ascomycetes – Black Mildew fungi – Crotalaria verrucosa – Fabaceae – Meliolaceae
Authors: Samanta T, Chatterjee L, Sinha S, Besra S, Roy AB
Recieved: 09 August 2022, Accepted: 08 November 2022, Published: 08 December 2022
In addition to having nutritional benefits, macrofungi have also been used medicinally. As a result, it is crucial to both the economy and the environment. This study was conducted from May 2020 to June 2022 in three urban parks in Kolkata, a major city in the Indian state of West Bengal. Twenty-eight fungal specimens were identified in this investigation, out of which 99% of the taxa are Basidiomycota, while only 1% is Ascomycota. The taxa belonged to 18 families and eight orders. Sixteen species were discovered in wood, notably over the dry stems of bamboo, and ten were discovered in soil, particularly in grasslands, over rotten dry leaves, and one over organic debris. Eleven of the specimens are edible, whereas the other eight are not. Out of 28 species, 32.14% of species are unknown. Among the three urban parks, viz., Ecopark, Central Park, and Elliot Park, macrofungal diversity was found to be the highest in Ecopark, followed by Central Park and Elliot Park. This study demonstrates the macrofungal diversity in three urban parks in Kolkata. The current study creates new opportunities for the investigation and use of wild mushrooms in urban parks in Kolkata.
Keywords: Basidiomycota – Edible – Habitat – Macrofungi – Urbanization
7. An updated account of Fagales-inhabiting Italian Ascomycota and mycogeography, with additions to Pezizomycotina
Authors: Wijesinghe SN, Zucconi L, Camporesi E, Wanasinghe DN, Boonmee S, Samarakoon MC, Chethana KWT, Puwakpitiya Gedara C, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Yong Wang, Hyde KD
Recieved: 08 July 2022, Accepted: 12 November 2022, Published: 08 December 2022
Studies of plant-associated Ascomycota are topical, as they have varied life modes depending on their hosts in different ecosystems. In Italy, Fagales are economically and ecologically important plants, especially in the Alps and Apennine mountain ranges. Fagales species host numerous ascomycetous species, comprising endophytes, saprobes, or pathogens. We retrieved data from 308 publications from 1873 to 2021 and listed 776 Ascomycota on Fagales in Italy. Among these, 696 were identified at the species level and 80 at the genus level. Documented taxa belong to Pezizomycotina (746), Saccharomycotina (2), Taphrinomycotina (5), and Ascomycota genera incertae sedis (23). Sordariomycetes are dominant (34%), followed by Dothideomycetes (24%), Lecanoromycetes (16%), and Leotiomycetes (11%). Distribution maps were provided for the occurrence of Fagales trees and Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, and Sordariomycetes taxa. Lichenized taxa were excluded from the mapping. We provided additions to Valsariaceae (Valsaria rudis) in Dothideomycetes, Coryneaceae (Coryneum modonium), Melanconiellaceae (Melanconiella flavovirens and M. meridionalis), and Woswasiaceae (Woswasia atropurpurea) in Sordariomycetes. These taxa represent a novel host record, a provincial record, and four regional records in Italy. Species boundaries were defined using polyphasic approaches. In addition, taxonomic notes were provided for each reported class, including incertae sedis genera. The study provides information on the taxonomy, hosts, and distribution of Ascomycota in Italy to encourage further research related to important plant species.
Keywords: checklist – host-fungal distribution – morphology – phylogeny – taxonomy
Authors: Karimi O, Rathnayaka AR, Gajanayake AJ, Farias ARG, Mamarabadi M, Chethana KWT
Recieved: 05 September 2022, Accepted: 12 November 2022, Published: 14 December 2022
Hypomyces is an important genus of fungicolous fungi associated with different ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. Numerous researchers have conducted morphological and molecular studies on this genus. In this study, we collected submerged branches of Fagus sp. from Mazandaran Province in Iran, from which a fungal isolate was obtained. Morphology coupled with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of the combined ITS, LSU, and rpb2 sequence data showed it is a novel taxon (Hypomyces iranica). The morphology of the newly described species is compared with its sister taxa, and a comprehensive description and micrographs are provided.
Keywords: 1 new species – Mazandaran – morphology – multilocus phylogeny – saprobes
9. Indigenous knowledge and utilization of wild Mushrooms in communities around Kibira and Bururi mountain forests in Burundi
Authors: Nteziryayo V, Tibuhwa DD, Mshandete
Recieved: 11 June 2022, Accepted: 01 December 2022, Published: 16 December 2022
Wild mushrooms are of paramount importance to human beings as a source of food, income and medicinal applications. However, the ethnomycological knowledge has not been well documented in Burundi and the potential benefits of this knowledge in medicine and sociocultural fields have not been explored. This study explored and documented the indigenous knowledge of wild edible mushrooms from the communities living around the Kibira and Bururi mountain forests in Burundi for the first time. Field surveys were conducted in the communities living around the Kibira National Park and the Bururi Forest Nature Reserve to document the local knowledge and the use of wild mushrooms. The interviews involved randomly picked 160 respondents of which, 99.4% of interviewees affirmed knowing mushrooms and 97.5% already utilized mushrooms. Among these, 69.4% utilized them as food. They recognize mushrooms as an alternative source of income (21.9%) and their medicinal applications (6.2%). The knowledge of mushroom edibility is transferred from parents to children by oral inheritance. That method has a negative impact on the traditional dissemination of this knowledge in the future due to some beliefs and conservative eating habits that induce a certain fear of mushrooms known as mycophobia, leading to the rejection of several mushroom species despite belonging to recognized edible taxa. A traditional method referred to as "Gusabura" was reported for eliminating toxic compounds in mildly toxic mushrooms prior to their consumption. The ethnomycological knowledge in Burundi is at risk of disappearing. Hence, there is a need to preserve this valuable indigenous knowledge by properly documenting it and introducing it in the lower level of the education system.
Keywords: “Gusabura” – Local mushroom knowledge – Mycophobia – Wild mushrooms’ utilization
10. An Addition to pestalotioid fungi in China: Neopestalotiopsis fragariae sp. nov. causing leaf spots on Fragaria × ananassa
Authors: Prematunga CJ, You LQ, Gomdola D, Balasuriya A, Yang YH, Jayawardena RS, Luo M
Recieved: 27 July 2022, Accepted: 12 December 2022, Published: 28 December 2022
Pestalotioid fungi are widely distributed and cause diseases on a myriad of crops, including strawberries. In this study, we introduce a new species, Neopestalotiopsis fragariae, that has been isolated from a leaf spot of strawberry in Guangdong Province, China. Neopestalotiopsis fragariae is classified as a new taxon based on the morphology and phylogenetic analysis of the combined ITS, β-TUB and TEF-1α sequence data, together with pairwise homoplasy index results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. fragariae that causes leaf spots on strawberries in China. This study provides novel data about the plant-pathogenic species associated with strawberries.
Keywords: Ascomycota – Plant pathogens – Sordariomycetes – Strawberry
Volume 6 - 2023 issue 2
2. Efficacy of Botanical Mixture and Fungicides to Combat Sigatoka Disease in Banana Cultivation
Dissanayake et al. (2023)
Volume 6 - 2023 issue 1
10. Effect of two root endophytes (Campylospora parvula and Tetracladium setigerum) on the growth of the wheat plant
Pant P & Sati SC (2023)
9. A new species of Stephanonectria (Bionectriaceae) from southwestern China
He SC et al. (2023)
8. Morphological and molecular Characterization of Pythium s.l. species from Khyber Pakthunkhwa province, Pakistan, with some new records and description of Globisporangium ghaffarianum sp. nov.
Abdul Haq M et al. (2023)
7. Cystoderma lignicola, a new species from southwestern China
Liu JW et al. (2023)
6. Mangrove fungi: A glimpse into Africa, its diversity and biotechnological potential
Myovela H et al. (2023)