Volume 6 - 2023 - issue 2

1. Analyses of challenges faced during the production of amylolytic enzymes and bio-ethanol using left-over cooked-rice, and rice unfit for human consumption

Authors: Kumar R, Babu P, Vinoth V, Vignesh K, Rani S, Renganathan S, Sarma V

Recieved: 20 August 2022, Accepted: 06 March 2023, Published: 11 August 2023

Rice-based enzyme and alcohol production bio-processes using fungi have been explored for years, but they have suffered from the long-pending predicament of presenting their challenges. Currently, major agricultural countries have been resorting to the usage of surplus first-generation biomass sources in bio-refineries. The present lab-scale work proposes, analyzes, and presents the scale-up challenges of such processes while using a novel mixture of left-over cooked rice and market-rejected rice grains. Fractionated rice grains were used as the substrates for enzyme production. Alpha-amylase (365 IU/mL) was produced by employing Aspergillus oryzae 113 ATCC [9102], while glucoamylase (96 IU/mL) was produced by employing Aspergillus niger A1143 NRRL3 [DSM2466] in separate 144-h-long bio-processes. A mixture of left-over cooked rice and rice grains was sequentially saccharified using the produced enzymes, showing a cumulative 51.66% saccharification. Fermentation of the saccharified hydrolysate using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yielded 59.2 g/L bio-ethanol (starch-conversion: 63.3%) with 190-proof purity (95% v/v). The impact of the enzyme/bio-ethanol production on the coefficients of fungal biomass yield (Yx/s, Yx/O2) and maintenance (msx, mO2x), the rates of specific growth (μ) and substrate uptake (SUR) were analyzed individually. A fundamental techno-economic analysis of the entire process has been presented.

Keywords: Hydrolysate – Fungal biomass yield – Saccharification – Yield and maintenance coefficients – Specific growth rate – Techno-economic analysis.


2. Efficacy of Botanical Mixture and Fungicides to Combat Sigatoka Disease in Banana Cultivation

Authors: Dissanayake M, Herath H, Jayasekara HM, Abeywickrame PD.

Recieved: 22 November 2023, Accepted: 24 May 2023, Published: 18 August 2023

Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis seriously threatens banana cultivation worldwide. This infirmity is controlled by the recurrent application of synthetic fungicides, which leads to several adverse effects. Plant extracts with antifungal potential have long been investigated as they contain secondary bioactive compounds for protecting crops from microbial infection. This study compared the antifungal activities of both botanical mixtures and recommended fungicides to control Black Sigatoka in banana. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the antifungal activity of the botanical mix prepared from eight different herbal plant parts against M. fijiensis, with two recommended fungicides as the positive control. In vitro results showed that the radial growth of the fungus was significantly impaired (P<0.05.) by the addition of the botanical mixture, fungicides, and combination of the botanical mixture (BM) and fungicides in the PDA media. Mycosphaerella fijiensis differed in their reaction to the BM and fungicides, and combination of BM and fungicides, but on the whole, growth inhibition increased with the concentration. In field experiments, all the treatments reduced the disease incidence significantly compared to the unsprayed control, where the disease severity index (DSI) increased from 43.88 to 67.77 within 28 days. After the first spray, the botanical mixture and fungicides (Chlorothalonil and Carbendazim) reduced the disease severity index to 39.7, 41.19, and 44.44, respectively. Fungicides and combinations of Chlorothalonil + BM and Carbendazim + BM showed the lowest DSI, 34.07 and 35.83, respectively. The results show that combining the synthetic and botanical mixture is more effective for controlling the disease. The study reveals the possibility of utilizing a botanical mixture as an integrated approach to manage Black Sigatoka disease more efficiently and in an eco-friendly manner. 

Keywords: Antifungal Activity – Carbendazim – Chlorothalonil – Mycosphaerella fijiensis – Plant extracts


3. Antioxidant activity and nutritional composition of different mushroom extracts grown on different bush encroachers as substrates in Namibia

Authors: Haukongo KN, Horn LN, Tjiurutue MC

Recieved: 25 April 2023, Accepted: 28 April 2023, Published: 28 September 2023

Mushrooms are a good source of antioxidants with a range of health benefits owing to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and nutritional composition of mushrooms cultivated on four different encroaching bushes as substrates. Antioxidant activity was measured using reducing power and DPPH scavenging assays. The IC50 values ranged from 0.380±0.098 mg/ml to 0.7780±0.007 mg/ml. The inhibition of the DPPH radical by PS extracts cultivated on Terminalia sericea (0.380±0.098 mg/ml) showed the highest activity compared to other mushroom extracts. All the mushroom species grown on different bushes showed an appreciable ability to reduce ferricyanide complex to ferrous form at different levels of concentration (0.063–1.00 mg/ml). TPC varied from 3.93 mg GAE/g to 8.016 mg GAE/g. TFC ranged from 0.515 mg QE/g to 12.1 mg QE/g, which showed a significant difference in the bush species at a p-value of less than 0.01. There was a significant difference in the interaction of bush substrates and mushroom species on crude protein and ash content at p-values of 0.01 and 0.015, respectively. In the current study, crude protein content ranged from 28.0% to 39.0%, with PF grown on Terminalia sericea having a high protein content. A significant difference in % NDF on mushroom species was found, where a variation was detected in HK35, while PF, PO, and PS showed a similar performance in % NDF. The study showed that ash content ranged from 5.77% to 17.9%. Percentage moisture ranged from 86.0% to 87.5%. A significant difference in mineral composition, with PO showing a high content of potassium (2.292%), PF showing a high content of sodium (0.059%), and PS showing a high content of phosphorus (0.746%) as compared to other mushroom species. Among the four different bushes, Combretum collinum (potassium 2.256%, sodium 0.05%, and phosphorus 0.74%) had the greatest effect on the mineral composition of the different mushrooms cultivated. In conclusion, mushrooms are accessible natural food rich in antioxidants, which may boost the immune system against oxidative damage and can be used as potential sources of therapeutic agents. 

Keywords: antioxidants – minerals – therapeutic agents – total flavonoids – total phenolics – oxidative stress


4. New host records of Ganoderma in northern Thailand and determination of nutritional contents of selected Ganoderma species

Authors: Luangharn T, Salichanh T, Khyaju S

Recieved: 27 July 2023, Accepted: 22 September 2023, Published: 26 October 2023

Ganoderma P. Karst is a group of wood-degrading mushrooms, and some are medicinal mushrooms that are ecologically and economically important. Ganoderma has distinctive non-laccate and laccate basidiocarps and double-wall basidiospores. This fungus is known to cause infections in hardwood hosts in tropical and temperate regions. This study reports non-laccate (Ganoderma gibbosum) and laccate (G. tropicum) species on a new host species, Anthocephalus chinensis, from Chiang Rai Province in Thailand. Comprehensive details of the two Ganoderma reported herein were proposed, described, and illustrated based on macro- and micro-morphology. The phylogenetic position was evaluated using the ITS sequence. The phylogenetic tree is provided to show the placement of taxa. Medicinal G. tropicum was selected to investigate the nutritional content. A high value was observed on energy (187.43) and dried matter content (75.92 ± 1.96 g/100g), followed by crude fiber, carbohydrates, protein, and moisture contents 51.53 ± 2.65 g/100g, 49.86 ± 1.98 g/100g, 14.64 ± 1.24 g/100g, 7.24 ± 0.40 g/100g, 1.86 ± 0.23 g/100g, and crude fat of 1.23 ± 0.19 g/100g, respectively. 

Keywords: molecular identification – proximate analysis – saprobic fungi – taxonomy – white rot fungi


5. Characterization of heterogeneous groups of fungal endophytes isolated from mangroves in Negombo, Sri Lanka

Authors: Rajan K, Baskaran R, Costa CD, Uthpala KK, Ranathunga RH, Raeesuddeen A, Kabeer R, Rahman FA, Dissanayaka DMSU

Recieved: 27 November 2022, Accepted: 31 May 2023, Published: 03 November 2023

Mangroves are well known for their adaptability to extreme conditions; thus, mangrove habitats help to manage coastlines and carbon cycling against anthropogenic stresses. Fungal endophyte is a type of microorganism that typically has a mutualistic relationship with its plant hosts. These endophytes can be found in several parts of the plant and play a positive role in the production of enzymes, nutrients and secondary metabolites, along with other processes such as toxin assembly and phyto-stimulation. The exploitation of these bioactive substances from endophytic fungi is beneficial in several fields such as pharmaceuticals and agriculture. The objective of the current investigation was to isolate and identify fungal endophytes present in ten mangrove species from Negombo, Sri Lanka: Acanthus ilicifolius, Acrostichum aureum, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera cylindrica, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba and Sonneratia caseolaris. A standard potato dextrose agar culturing was used to obtain fungal colonies from leaves, roots and twigs, whose morphological characteristics were used for their identification. Out of the 42 fungal isolates extracted from the samples, nine endophytic genera such as Aspergillus, Candida, Chaetomium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were found. The highest number of isolates was obtained from Sonneratia alba. Each mangrove species held varying types of fungal colonies, with the genus Penicillium being isolated the highest number of times and the genus Aspergillus being highly diverse. The findings of this study have helped to confirm the presence of endophytic fungi in all the sample mangroves tested.

Keywords: Diversity – Fungi – Mangrove plants – Plant endophytes – Sri Lankan


6. Molecular and morphological studies on some gasteroid (Basidiomycota) fungi from Western India

Authors: Patel RR, Rajput

Recieved: 27 May 2023, Accepted: 11 August 2023, Published: 24 November 2023

The gasteroid fungi are a group of fungi in Basidiomycota that include stinkhorns, earth balls, puffballs, pseudo truffles, earth stars, and bird’s nests. In the present study, six species of gasteroid fungi belonging to four genera were collected from different forest regions in Gujarat state. Identification was carried out based on the morphological features, and molecular phylogenetic analysis using nuclear rDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS), rDNA LSU and mitochondrial ATP6 gene sequences were used for molecular identification. DNA sequencing data of different gene loci (ITS, LSU, and ATP6) were submitted into the BOLD data system for DNA barcoding. Additionally, this study provides a checklist of available molecular identification data for reported gasteroid fungi from Gujarat state.

Keywords: DNA barcoding – ITS – LSU – molecular phylogeny – taxonomy


7. AJOM new records and collections of fungi: 151-200

Authors: Chethana KWT, Rathnayaka AR, Samarakoon BC, Wu N, Wijesinghe SN, Yasanthika WAE, Sysouphanthong P, Thiyagaraja V, Armand A, Lestari AS, Madagammana AD, Ediriweera AN, Prematunga C, Li CJ-Y, Tennakoon DS, Gomdola D, Marasinghe DS, Bundhun D, Pem D, Ren G, Zhao H, Su HL, Win H, Li H, Lu L, Calabon MS, Samarakoon MC, Chaiwan N, Huanraluek N, Samaradiwakara NP, Kularathnage ND, Abeywickrama PD, Perera RH, Tang SM, Du T-Y, Punyaboon W, Ma X, Yang YH, Tun ZL, Bhunjun CS, Manawasinghe IS, Senanayake IC, Liu J-K, Tibpromma S, Wadduwage KS, Wijayalath WHDN, Raspé O, Bulgakov TS, Camporesi E, Promputtha I, Hyde KD

Recieved: 02 July 2023, Accepted: 30 October 2023, Published: 01 December 2023

This article is the third in the Asian Journal of Mycology Notes series, wherein we report 50 new fungal collections distributed in two phyla, five classes, 16 orders and 35 families. The present study provides descriptions and illustrations for five new species (Acrocalymma hyaline, Allocryptovalsa aquilariae, Alternaria arida, Apoharknessia thailandica and Tatraea aseptata) and 21 new host and 23 new geographical records. All these introductions are supported by morphological data and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses. This article provides the platform to disseminate the data on fungal collections with new sequence data, which is vital for future studies. An accurate and timely report of new fungus-host or fungus-country records is necessary for the diagnostics, identification, and management of economically significant fungal groups, especially the phytopathogens.

Keywords: 5 new taxa – 44 new records – Anthracothecium – Asterophora – Botryosphaeria – Camarosporidiella – Chlorencoelia – Cladosporium – Clonostachys – Colletotrichum – Coniochaeta – Cordana – Corynespora – Diaporthe – Discosia – Gymnopilus – Hymenotorrendiella – Lasiodiplodia – Lepiota – Magnibotryascoma – Melanconis – Molecular phylogeny – Nigrospora – Neoleptosporella – Nigrograna – Phaeobotryon – Phaeoseptum – Pleurotus – Pochonia – Pseudofusicoccum – Pseudopithomyces – Pulveroboletus – Pyrenula – Salsuginea – Spegazzinia –Taxonomy – Translucidithyrium – Vaginatispora – Vamsapriya – Volutella


8. Diversity of fungal endophytes associated with the Philippine endemic ginger Vanoverberghia sepulchrei Merr. (Zingiberaceae)

Authors: Magday Jr. JC, Alejandro GJD, Bungihan ME, dela Cruz TEE

Recieved: 19 June 2023, Accepted: 17 November 2023, Published: 13 December 2023

The pantropical Zingiberaceae family is among the most threatened monocotyledonous plants, with numerous species endemic to the Philippines, and thus, is an ideal host to study fungal endophytes. In this study, we determined the occurrence and diversity of fungal endophytes associated with the Philippine endemic ginger Vanoverberghia sepulchrei Merr. All major plant organs, i.e., leaf, pseudostem, rhizome, and root, were surface-sterilized to isolate Vanoverberghia-associated fungal endophytes (VFE). A combination of morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences derived from ITS were used to identify selected isolated fungi. Our results showed the isolation of twenty fungal morphospecies, and these were identified as belonging to the genera Bjerkandera, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cosmospora, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Leptographium, Mucor, Nigrospora, Perenniporia, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Phytophthora, Pseudopithomyces, Rhizopus, and Trichoderma. The results of this study paved the way for the first report of fungal endophytes from the Philippine endemic ginger.

Keywords: biodiversity – endemic plants – fungal phylogeny – ginger – Philippine flora


9. Development and Characterization of Expression Vectors for the Riboflavin Overproducing Fungus Eremothecium ashbyii using Ashbya gossypii Genes

Authors: Simadri D, Sampath K, Vinod U, Prasanth K, Rajagopal K, Vijayalakshmi S

Recieved: 26 July 2023, Accepted: 25 November 2023, Published: 15 December 2023

Eremothecium ashbyii is a filamentous hemi-ascomycete fungus and a natural overproducer of riboflavin. The present study was undertaken to characterize the molecular tools constructed for the genetic manipulation of this organism based on plasmids constructed for the related organisms A. gossypii and S. cerevisiae using two candidate genes. The candidate gene, SPR3 homolog of 

S. cerevisiae, is known to play a role in cytokinesis in S. cerevisiae. This gene was chosen to aid in future studies on the regulation of septation and its role in the excretion of riboflavin in E. ashbyii, as yeast cytokinesis is analogous to the septation of filamentous fungi. The second candidate gene was the S. cerevisiae RAD14 homolog, which is known to play a key role in the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Reporter plasmids, constructed previously in a preliminary study with the AgSPR3-like gene and the AgRAD14-like gene fused to the LacZ reporter gene, were used in this study. These plasmids were characterized by sequencing followed by homology searches. While the former revealed homology to the S. cerevisiae septin protein family, SPR3 gene, and the Neurospora crassa CDC12 gene involved in cell cycle regulation, the latter showed homology to the S. cerevisiae HOGI gene involved in the osmotic stress response.


Keywords: Cytokinesis – HOG1 – NER pathway – Septation – SPR3


10. Distribution and new records of Myxomycetes from Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests of South India

Authors: Nivetha M, Babu B, Kumar M

Recieved: 30 May 2023, Accepted: 15 December 2023, Published: 22 December 2023

The present survey is a preliminary study of the diversity of Myxomycetes occurring in the tropical dry evergreen forest vegetation of the southeastern coastal belt of India. A total of 11 taxa belonging to the orders Ceratiomyxales, Trichiales, Stemonitidales and Physarales were collected, studied, and described from this region. The identification was supported using both morphological and microscopic characters. Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa var. arbuscula, Arcyria insignis, Arcyria incarnata, Hemitrichia serpula, Stemonitis flavogenita, Physarum notabile, Fuligo septica var. candida, Fuligo septica var. septica, and Comatricha anomala are reported for the first time from Tamil Nadu, South India.

Keywords: Arcyria – Ceratiomyxa – Comatricha – Fuligo – Fungal diversity – Hemitrichia – new report – Physarum – Stemonitis – Tamil Nadu


11. Insights into the profile of soil fungal diversity in Thailand

Authors: Gomes de Farias AR, Yasanthika WAE, Monkai J

Recieved: 09 October 2023, Accepted: 27 November 2023, Published: 29 December 2023

Soil fungi are diverse and abundant organisms. However, our knowledge of the global diversity and distribution of soil fungi is limited. This study uses the Global Soil Mycobiome Consortium (GSMc) dataset to explore the assortment of soil fungi in Thailand. The study aimed to evaluate the diversity and richness of soil fungi in Thailand, identify the dominant fungal taxa and functional groups present in Thai soils, and examine the impact of land use and fire on the diversity of soil fungi in Thailand. We identified 18,209 OTUs, of which Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the most abundant in all land conditions. We also found that ectomycorrhizal and soil saprotrophs were primary lifestyles, accounting for around 20%. Our results provide novel insights into the diversity and distribution of soil fungi in Thailand and contribute to understanding soil fungal ecology in tropical regions. The paper also invites collaboration to explore this ecosystem further.

Keywords: Ascomycota, high-throughput sequencing – operational taxonomic unit – soilborne fungi


About Asian Journal of Mycology

Asian Journal of Mycology publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

All manuscripts will undergo peer review before acceptance. Asian Journal of Mycology will publish each manuscript as quickly as possible following acceptance by the editors.

Asian Journal of Mycology

Asian Journal of Mycology

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